Randomized clinical trial of telepsychiatry through video conference versus face-to-face conventional psychiatric treatment.
The study evaluated the efficacy of telepsychiatry through video-conferencing in comparison to face-to-face conventional (F2FC) treatment. The study demonstrated that the video-conference telepsychiatry treatment was as effective as F2FC psychiatric treatment, and can be a significant channel for providing mental health services to psychiatric patients residing in underserved and rural communities with limited mental health resources.

Published in Telemedicine Journal and e-Health in June 2006. Authors: De Las Cuevas C, Arredondo MT, Cabrera MF, Sulzenbacher H, and Meise U.

Telepsychiatry: Video-conferencing in the Delivery of Psychiatric Care
The provision of psychiatric treatment via live interactive videoconferencing, frequently termed telepsychiatry, is a viable option for psychiatrists to provide care to individual patients, populations, and communities faced with limited access and to move the point of care delivery into patients’ living environments. This article provides an overview of the current evidence base in telepsychiatry and reviews administrative and clinical issues in videoconferencing-based treatment.

Published by The American Journal of Psychiatry in March 2013.  Author: Jay H. Shore, M.D., M.P.H.

The effectiveness of telemental health: a 2013 review.
The authors reviewed current literature on telemental health and found that telemental health is effective for diagnosis and assessment across many populations (adult, child, geriatric, and ethnic) and for disorders in many settings (emergency, home health) and appears to be comparable to in-person care.  Authors conclude that telemental health is effective and increases access to care.

Published by the Telemedicine Journal and e-Health in June 2013.  Authors: Donald M. Hilty, Daphne C. Ferrer, Michelle Burke Parish, Barb Johnston, Edward J. Callahan, and Peter M. Yellowlees.

Child and Adolescent Telepsychiatry: Utilization And Satisfaction
Researchers found that telepsychiatry offered through a regional children’s hospital was well utilized and parents were highly satisfied with their children’s care, with an indication of increasing satisfaction upon return appointments.

Published by the Telemedicine Journal and e-Health in March 2008.  Authors: Kathleen M. Myers, M.D., M.P.H., Jeanette M. Valentine, Ph.D., Sanford M. Melzer, M.D., M.B.A.

Care Coordination/Home Telehealth: the systematic implementation of health informatics, home telehealth, and disease management to support the care of veteran patients with chronic conditions.
Telehealth initiatives have demonstrated 25% reduction in bed days, 19% reduction in hospital re-admissions and 56% total utilization reduction for depression.

Published by the Telemedicine Journal and e-Health in December 2008.  Authors: Darkins A, Ryan P, Kobb R, Foster L, Edmonson E, Wakefield B, Lancaster AE.

Outcomes of 98,609 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs patients enrolled in telemental health services, 2006-2010.
This four-year study assessed clinical outcomes of 98,609 mental health patients before and after enrollment in telemental health services of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs between 2006 and 2010.  Authors found that after initiation of such services, patients’ hospitalization utilization decreased by an average of approximately 25%.

Published by the Telemedicine Journal and e-Health in April 2012.  Authors: Godleski L, Darkins A, and Peters J.

Rural Mental Health: Implications for Telepsychiatry in Clinical Service, Workforce Development, and Organizational Capacity
“Benefits of telepsychiatry include diagnostic accuracy and service satisfaction, which have been found to be comparable between in-person and telepsychiatry assessment…Patients also prefer telepsychiatry over waiting a longer period of time to see a specialist or traveling a significant distance for an appointment. Moreover, telepsychiatry can reduce absenteeism (work, school), enhance sense of patient choice and control, and spare patients from long, expensive, and life-disrupting journeys.”

Published by the Telemedicine Journal and e-Health in April 2012.  Authors: Jane Chung-Do, Susana Helm, Michael Fukuda, Dan Alicata, Stephanie Nishimura, and Iwalani Else.

Use of Telepsychiatry to Improve Care for People With Mental Illness in Rural North Carolina
Telehealth improves access to medical services, especially for people living in rural areas. In North Carolina, the advantages of telepsychiatry also go beyond improving access. This article describes a diverse program of telehealth and telepsychiatric service delivery and discusses its advantages and disadvantages.

Published by the North Carolina Medical Journal in May/June 2011.  Authors: Saeed SA, Diamond J, and Bloch RM.

Using telemedicine to avoid transfer of rural emergency department patients.
Telemedicine technologies have the potential of providing earlier diagnosis and intervention, of saving lives and of avoiding unnecessary transfers from rural hospital emergency departments to urban hospitals. This evaluation study demonstrates the potential value of telemedicine use in rural emergency departments to patients, rural hospitals and rural communities.

Published by the Journal of Rural Health in 2001.  Authors: Hicks LL, Boles KE, Hudson ST, Madsen RW, Kling B, Tracy J, Mitchell JA, and Webb W.

What About Telepsychiatry? A Systematic Review
This literature review and analysis completed in 2010 of 620 articles overviewing the effectiveness of telepsychiatry highlights that while additional hard evidence is needed, the ability for videoconference-based treatment to obtain the same results as face-to-face therapy is possible.

Published by The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry in 2010. Authors: Garcia-Lizana, F. & Muñoz-Mayorga, I.

Review of key telepsychiatry outcomes
This literature review and analysis completed in 2015 determined that a large evidence base supports telepsychiatry is as effective as face-to-face delivery or mental health services. The review also determines telepsychiatry to be more cost effective, and that generally concerns about the practice of telemental health comes from providers and not patients.

Published by World J Psychiatry in June 2016. Authors: Hubley, S., Lynch, S., Schneck, S., Thomas, M. & Shore, J.

Telepsychiatry integration of mental health services into rural primary care settings
This paper describes the five models of telepsychiatry, empirical evidence for the telepsychiatry collaborative care model, and provides case studies of consultation. The perspective presented in this paper is that telepsychiatry can be an answer to current workforce issues and serve as an equalizer for those who have difficulty accessing care.

Published by the International Review of Psychiatry in December 2015. Authors: Fortney, J., Pyne, J., Turner, E., Farris, K., Normoyle, T., Avery, M., Hilty, D., & Unützer, J.

Rapid Growth In Mental Health Telemedicine Use Among Rural Medicare Beneficiaries, Wide Variation Across States
This research study reviews all telemedicine Medicare claims from 2004 to 2014 to reveal trends of users by state. The number of telemental health visits nationally grew on average 45.1 percent annually, and beneficiaries who received a telemental health visit were more likely to be younger than sixty-five, be eligible for Medicare because of disability, and live in an underserved community.

Published by Health Affairs in May 2017. Authors: Mehrotra, A., Huskamp, H., Souza, J, Uscher-Pines, L, Rose, S., Landon, B., Jena, A, & Busch, A.

Telemedicine: The Promise and Challenges
This telemedicine toolkit overviews current applications, key resources, implementation challenges, policy issues and experts within the field of telemedicine. It is an incredibly helpful guide for those who are new to telemedicine or need to identify specific resources and, or individuals to support their telemedicine efforts.

Published by the Alliance for Health Reform and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in June 2015.

Practice Guidelines for Telemental Health with Children and Adolescents
This document provides a clinical guideline for the delivery of child and adolescent mental health and behavioral services by a licensed health care provider through real time videoconferencing. The guidelines address three aspects of service delivery: administration/management, clinical practice,
and technical design and architecture.

Created and published by the American Telemedicine Association in March 2017.