Association Between Prescription of Major Psychotropic Medications and Violent Reoffending
This study examined whether pharmacological treatments reduce the reoffending risk for individuals released from prison. For 22, 275 released prisoners in Sweden, researchers compared rates of violent reoffending during medicated periods with rates during nonmedicated periods. Authors conclude that rates of violent reoffending were lower during periods when individuals were dispensed antipsychotics, psychostimulants, and drugs for addictive disorders, compared with periods in which they were not dispensed these medications.

Published by the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2016.  Authors: Zheng Chang, PhD; Paul Lichtenstein, PhD, Niklas Långström, MD, Henrik Larsson, PhD, and Seena Fazel, MD.

Transitioning Between Systems of Care:  Missed Opportunities for Engaging Adults with Serious Mental Illness and Criminal Justice Involvement
This study examines how such individuals involved in the criminal justice system describe their experiences receiving care both during and after their time in custody and explores the perspectives of mental health service providers who treat this population upon re-entry. Findings identify specific target areas for improved care coordination as well as for additional provider education regarding the unique needs of this population.

Published in Behavioral Health Sciences and the Law in August 2013 Authors: Pope LG, Smith TE, Wisdom JP, Easter A, and Pollock M.

Behavioral Health and Criminal Justice Systems: Identifying New Opportunities for Information Exchange
This report serves to provide states with information about various sources of data used by agencies that are engaged with justice-involved persons who have a mental illness. The identification of key attributes of these data sources and potential mechanisms for strengthening these data are provided to illuminate the culture, language, and definitions of success for the criminal justice systems.

Published by NASMHPD Research Institute, Inc., in partnership with the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Inc. in 2015.

Costs of Criminal Justice Involvement Among Persons with Serious Mental Illness in Connecticut
This study tracked costs incurred by individuals with bipolar and schizophrenia across public agencies in Connecticut over 2 years; during that time 1 in 4 became involved in the criminal justice system and this population incurred costs that were nearly double those of the group with no justice involvement. Authors conclude that criminal justice involvement is a complex and costly problem that affects a substantial proportion of adults with serious mental illness who receive services across state agencies.

Published by Psychiatry Online in July 2013. Authors: Swanson JW, Frisman LK, Robertson AG, Lin HJ, Trestman RL, Shelton DA, Parr K, Rodis E, Buchanan A, and Swartz MS.

Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses in County Jails: A Survey of Jail Staff’s Perspectives
A nationwide survey of 230 sheriff’s departments gathered data on jail staffs’ experiences with seriously mentally ill inmates, the training provided to sheriffs’ deputies and other jail staff on effective ways to handle seriously mentally ill inmates, and the kind of treatment types and resources available to treat seriously mentally ill inmates in county jails.  Authors find that the justice system continues to criminalize individuals with mental illnesses and places a huge burden on county jails that house them; authors recommend a number of interventions to divert individuals with mental illness away from the criminal justice system.

A research report written by the Public Citizen’s Health Research Group and The Treatment Advocacy Center on July 14, 2016. Authors: Azza AbuDagga, M.H.A., Ph.D., Sidney Wolfe, M.D., Michael Carome, M.D., Amanda Phatdouang, B.A., and E. Fuller Torrey, M.D.

The Price of Prisons: Examining State Spending Trends, 2010 – 2015
This collection of resources includes an in-depth research report, interactive visualizations, fact sheets and Excel data overviewing state spending trends on incarceration from 2010 to 2015. Specifically, the study focused on the following states: FL, TX, LA, GA, AL, SC, NC, MD, NJ, NY, MI and WI. The resources look at outcomes of increased or decreased spending on both incarceration and crime rates.

These resources were created by the Vera Institute of Justice and Published in May 2017. Authors: Mai, C. & Subramanian, R.

Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017
This report and series of infographics provides insight into the entire “pie” of incarceration in the United States and what has led to incarceration. It combines data and information about state and federal prisons, juvenile correctional facilities, local jails, Indian Country jails, military prisons, immigration detention facilities, civil commitment centers, and prisons in U.S. territories.

Published by the Prison Policy Initiative and released on March 14, 2017. Authors: Wagner, P. & Rabuy, R.

Cost of not caring: Mental Illness in America
This series of stories compiled by USA Today examines how stigma and discrimination prevent people with mental illness from receiving life-changing care and services, and why so many people with mental illness become prisoners of addiction. These in-depth case examples highlight the de facto use of criminal justice to serve those with mental disorders.

Published by USA Today on July 21, 2014.

Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations – A Research-Based Guide
This research-based guide provides an introduction and key treatment guidelines for working with individuals who have substance use disorders in the criminal justice system. This guide lists key principles in effective substance abuse treatment and provides answers to common questions about the uniqueness of providing SUD treatment in a criminal justice setting. This guide is additionally downloadble as a PDF, Kindle, and ePub file.

Published by the National Institutes of Health on April 18, 2014. Author: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

America’s New Drug Policy Landscape: Two-Thirds Favor Treatment, Not Jail, for Use of Heroin, Cocaine
This article presents data from a national survey conducted by Pew Research Center that looks into attitudes of Americans on illegal drug use and drug policies, and perceived risk of marijuana. Notably the article states that 67% of Americans believe the government should provide treatment for illegal substance use over prosecution.

Published by Pew Research Center on April 2, 2014. Authors: Doherty, C., Horowitz, J. & Suis, R.

Substance Abuse Treatment Centers and Local Crime
This research paper looks at substance-use treatment facility openings and closings at the county level and impacts on crime in the area. Substance-use treatment facilities reduce violent and financially motivated crimes.

Published by the National Bureau of Economic Research in September 2016. Authors: Bondurant, S., Lindo, J., & Isaac, S.

Access to Health Care and Criminal Behavior: Short-Run Evidence from the ACA Medicaid Expansions
This data review looks at the impact of the Affordable Care Act’s Medicaid Expansion and causal relationships between insurance coverage and criminal behavior. Per the statistical analysis, Medicaid expansions have contributed to a decrease in crime by 3 percent, which is estimated to be an annual savings of $13 billion dollars.

Published November 2017. Author: Vogler, J.

Surveillance Success Stories California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation
This report by the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) overviews how a need for data was identified related to inmates who self-harmed or attempted suicide, how CDCR adapted to collect necessary self-harm and suicide risk information and the programs that will be put into place to address new identified risk factors among inmates. Notable fact: in 2016, only 19 percent of deaths by suicide occured with inmates who were not receiving mental health services.

Published by Suicide Prevention Resource Center in 2017. Author: Canning, R.

A Guide to Collecting Mental Health Court Outcome Data
This resource guide helps mental health courts develop practical and feasible data collection measures by guiding them through the full process of deciding what data to collect and how.

This guide was funded by Council of State Governments in 2005. Author: Steadman, H. J.

Treat or Repeat: A State Survey of Serious Mental Illness, Major Crimes and Community Treatment
This report provides historical context for the connection between Serious Mental Illness (SMI) and the judicial system. It then dives deep into each state’s structure and programming efforts to assist individuals with serious mental illness who have committed major crimes succeed after community reentry. States are all provided a “grade” and notably, no state received an A grading. Highest rated states include Hawaii, Maine, Missouri and Oregon. Lowest rated states include Alaska, Idaho, Indiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Mexico, Texas and Wyoming.

Funded and published by the Treatment Advocacy Center in September 2017.

Fact Sheet: Support Mental Health and Criminal Justice Interventions to Lower Health Care Costs in the United States
This fact sheet was made leveraging BHECON’s State Chartbooks produced by the USC Schaeffer Center for Health Economics & Policy. This advocacy tool overviews the over-representation of individuals living with serious mental illness or substance use disorders in the criminal justice system. Investing in community-based treatment and other support services improves outcomes for these individuals, reduces the burden on the criminal justice system, and ultimately saves money for states. An editable version exists for your own use.

Created in 2018 by the National Council for Behavioral Health

Improving Police Interventions During Mental Health-Related Encounters: Past, Present And Future
This paper reviews the first wave of reform efforts designed to re-shape police sensibilities and practices in the handling of mental health-related encounters. It also suggests there are critical opportunities for a new wave of efforts that can further advance the guardianship agenda including: (1) enhancing experiences of procedural justice during mental health-related encounters; (2) building the evidence base through integrated data sets; and (3) balancing a ‘case-based’ focus with a ‘place-based’ focus.

Published by the Journal of Policing and Society in August 2016. Authors: Wood, J.D. & Watson, A.C.

New Evidence That Access to Health Care Reduces Crime
This detailed blog entry highlights new research that shows that offering broad access to mental health and addiction treatment is not only compassionate, but also a cost-effective way to reduce crime rates. Reduced crime rates mean reduced incarcerations and cost savings to criminal justice institutions and states.

Published by the Brookings Institute in January 2018. Author: Doleac, J.